German Culture and More
Let us discuss the German culture in three chunks,
language, people, and their
holidays and vacations dates. Other cultural
issues are discussed in Food and Drink
especially German Wine and
For a list of a few helpful words and phrases, see our page
Words and Phrases. But for more general thoughts
on the language, you are on the right page.
The German language
is Germanic. This is probably no surprise to the average reader but it might surprise
you that English is a Germanic language too. At least according to linguistic experts.
Much of what is now England at one time in the dim light of history (ca. 500 CE
to 1066 CE) was occupied and run by a group called Anglo-Saxons. More accurately
they were the Angles and the Saxons. These are two different tribes that came from
the north and northwest of what is now Germany and they spoke a version of Old Low
Anyway, as you probably know English is like a sponge soaking up words from Latin,
French, German, Japanese, and any other language it bumps into. Well, German does
too. Both languages are changing rapidly today. Each year when we visit, I notice
that German people use more English words in their everyday vocabulary. I recently
heard my sister-in-law use a common English swear word (the one that starts with
“s”), and she only speaks German. The reason she chose that expletive is interesting.
German has a very good s-word of its own that she knows well enough how to use but
she feels the foreign word has a nicer and softer connotation in her language. Go
German assimilates foreign words as fast or faster than English does. Maybe someday,
linguistic experts will refer to German as an “Englic” language (unfortunately,
they will probably use the term “Anglican” but it is not as fun as my word). Generally,
Germans are somewhat put aback by how their language is changing. Especially how
it is absorbing English words. They call the resulting mishmash of languages Denglish.
They discuss implementing laws that require strict use of traditional German like
the French have done but that discussion never gets far.
Germans are a progressive bunch and they do not want to be slowed down by traditionalists.
There is a faction that makes fun of using foreign words as if they were real German.
A few years ago they criticized the chairman of DB, the almost privatized German
Train System. He introduced words like Service Point, Ticket, etc. German, of course,
has its own descriptive words for those terms. Another classic Denglish word is
the computer term for downloading a file, in German that verb is file-downloaden.
Who uses Datei herunterladen these days?
Germans are prone to combine terms
that contain two or more words in English into one German word. Sure, we do that
in English too, like guidebook and mountainside, for example. But in German, words
can go on forever. Mark Twain said of the German language that, "German words
are so long they have perspective." According to Wikipedia, one of the longest
German words is Rinderkennzeichnungsundrindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz
which means simply, Cattle Marking and Beef Labeling Supervision Duties Delegation
It is certainly true that German has some extremely long words. In our language,
these words are more like terms. Let's start simple. In English, we say "train
station." In German that term becomes one word Bahnhof; a combination
of one of the words for train, Bahn, and the word for a large building,
Hof. Similarly, a bicycle becomes a Fahrrad; a traveling wheel.
Now the next step, the word Übernachtungsmöglichkeit, for example, directly
translated is overnighting possibility (like a hotel or similar).
On that Mark Twain says, "If
a cat gets ahold of a German irregular verb, goodbye cat!" Twain is the guy
who also commented on one of Germany's foremost composers by saying, "Wagner’s
music is better than it sounds."
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By the way, it might be edifying to point
out that in German, all nouns are capitalized. It is a good idea. It helps those
of us who struggle with a second language separate those words that modify stuff
(adjectives and adverbs) and do stuff (verbs) from the names for things (nouns).
But still, we wonder about the correctness of, "Er ist ein amerikanischer
Bürger." compared to, "He is an American citizen." Different
In English, you have more than one way
of making a word plural. For example, we usually just add an "s." One
car or two cars, but sometimes we change a vowel as in one woman or two women. Germans
use an "s" too, as in ein Auto but zwei Autos. But they
also change vowels, for example, ein Bahnhof, zwei Bahnhöfe. The vowel
change is done by adding the two dots (umlaut) to the "o."
Sometimes both languages use the same word for singular and plural, for example
one sheep/two sheep and in German ein Zimmer/zwei Zimmer. Another example
is English one girl/two girls becomes in German ein Mädchen/zwei Mädchen.
And the English sheep example becomes Ein Schaf/zwei Schafe. Here the plural
is made by adding an "e." They do this frequently, as in tree/trees which
becomes ein Baum, zwei Bäume. Sometimes all you do is add an "n"
like in the case of flower/flowers is eine Blume and zwei Blumen:
And it gets complicater and complcater as you go - to paraphrase Alice in Wonderland.
A word about gender, which has nothing
to do with sex. Nouns in German are either masculine, feminine or neuter. It confuses
me no end why a table has a different gender than an automobile or a river. A woman
(die Frau) is feminine and a man (der Man) is masculine. You might
think that logical but why is a girl (das Mädchen) neuter when a boy (der
Junge) is masculine (except for Bübchen, a very little boy). The names
of rivers are normally feminine so it is die Weser and die Mosel
for example. However, there are a couple of important exceptions; both the Main
and Rhine rivers (der Main and der Rhein) are masculine. So the
definite article becomes der, not die. Who knows why? Pronouns
have the same gender as the nouns they refer to, which might confuse an English
reader. But enough about gender for now.
A cognate in one
language is a similar word with a similar meaning in another language. A false cognate
looks to the uninitiated like a cognate but is not. We use actual to mean something
that really is. But in German aktuell means "current" in English. If you
want to use a German word that means the same as the English actually try eigentlich.
If you are interested in more of these, try About.Com's
False Friends in German.*
I mentioned at the start that much of English came from an early form of German.
One should be able to stare at a written German word and come to some understanding
of its meaning in English. But you cannot always depend upon being able to study
a word and break it down into parts that can be understood in English. Take the
word Erdbeeren. That should be something to do with dirt (Erde
is earth) and something to do with beer. Right? Except it means strawberries because
Beeren is plural for berry while Bier is beer. Oh, well.
Descriptions of modern clothing frequently use a few English words. But an English-looking
word may not be English at all but authentic Deutsch. Be careful in assuming
that you know what these words mean because the meaning can easily change and so
can the pronunciation. In fact, some English sounding words are actually German
words that we English speakers have changed the pronunciation and meaning of when
we borrowed the term from German. “Hosen” is not something women wear on
their legs; it means “pants.” A “Slip” is panties but a “Schlips”
is a necktie and a “Gürtel” is a belt and both genders wear Gürtel.
Be careful about what you ask for – you might be embarrassed. That is all in the
fun of travel after all.
Some of the letters in German
words and place names have umlauts (two little dots over the vowels a, o, and u).
If your keyboard does not have these characters one is allowed to use an “e” following
the vowel. For example, the name Günter becomes Guenter and Köln becomes Koeln.
Or, you can use the insert symbol option from the menu to find the proper umlauted
The German language has a strange character that looks for all the world like
a capital B. They put it right in the middle or at the end of words. A very strange
place for a capital B indeed. Actually, English speakers call it an s-set ("ss"
or more correctly pronounced "ts"). The character is "ß." A few years
ago in 1996, the official keepers of the language decided to do away with it in
every instance following a short sounding vowel. However, that idea went over like
a lead balloon with the population. That said, the language will probably conform
with the new rules in a generation or two. Today anyway iss (eat!) sometimes
looks like iß. And, Gruss (greeting) is written with a "ß" and
looks like Gruß since it follows a long vowel. (do not say "grub"
- you will not be understood). Again, if your keyboard does not have that character,
simply use "ss."
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Interestingly, a reader points out that you cannot willy-nilly exchange a double
s for an ß because some words are only spelled with a double s. She, the reader,
gives the example of "Maße" (meaning "measures") that
is pronounced with a long a juxtaposed with "Masse" (meaning "mass")
that is pronounced with a short a. German is very confusing to a native English
speaker. But then you can say that even English is confusing to a native English
speaker. If you think I said that wrong by mistake, you would be incorrect. My British
friends, Neil and Judith, point out that I do not speak English well to begin with.
They say I speak like a colonist from the colonies.
That same reader from above points out that the "ß" was originally a printer's
mark for the combination of "s" and "z" and that therefore its sound is more of
a hissing sound than the buzzing sound of the soft "s" or double "s." She writes
like a professional linguist so she is probably right. And my German speaking wife
thinks so too.
As a general rule in German words,
you pronounce every letter in the same way each time you see them. Unfortunately,
German also has words from other languages like English and French so occasionally
you do not pronounce every letter. I have found that if a vowel has an umlaut, I
have trouble pronouncing it. I also have trouble with R's and L's and the "ch"
sound. Hey, if it was easy, all the translators would be unemployed.
I have heard that there is one term in German that means, "pardon me" or "say
that again." The term is "Wie bitte" which directly translates to, "What please."
However, in the venacular of Germany speech, it is pronounced, "Huh?"
You can find a few keywords and phrases
by clicking on this link. The list does not have everything you need, but almost.
Add some numbers, left and right, and a few days of the week, and you are there.
Germans are not, contrary
to stereotypes, stubborn. They are just argumentative. Things have to be logical
to them or they will argue about it until they either understand your logic or reconcile
themselves that you have no logic so why bother. Now that logic does not have to
be based in physics or math, but it does have to fit with their world-view or of
what is the correct way to live. For example, they know instinctively that drafts
cause colds and therefore drafts are bad. They only accept modern medicine’s finding
that bugs cause colds with the part of their brain that has nothing to do with their
behavior. (I probably inherited that particular gene from my grandmother Schmidt.)
They like ventilation in their homes, just not when they are in the room being ventilated.
Another example is they have deduced that things that are too cold cause digestion
problems. Therefore, you cannot find a glass of ice water in the whole of Germany
(not that it is any easier in the rest of Europe). If you happen to come from Seattle
and have a hankering for an iced latté, you will be surprised at what you get when
you order an Eiskaffee in Germany. You will get coffee and ice cream. In
German, (Eis is ice cream, not ice cubes). I must say Eiskaffee
is a happy improvement over an iced latté. On the other hand, imagine the disappointment
that a German experiences when after ordering an ice coffee in latté-land (Seattle)
and they get only coffee, milk, and ice cubes.
Germans are passionate about lifestyle and politics – an expensive combination
from a societal perspective. They enjoy laws that encourage family values to a depth
never dreamed of by American lawmakers. For example, many of the neighborhood shops
but not large shopping centers close early Saturday and remain closed on Sunday
so the workers can be with their families. This is not only inconvenient for the
shoppers, but also expensive to the society in that there are fewer jobs in retailing.
It is also common for other types of firms to close early on Fridays. Again, this
gives the workers more time at home. Of course, the trade unions request many of
Germany is one of the most highly unionized countries in the western world. This
fact is causing their labor cost to skyrocket. Fortunately, this high labor cost
is held partially in check by their ability to keep their productivity high through
ingenuity and technology. But using technology also reduces the number of laborers
needed to accomplish a task. This and reunification has led, in recent years, to
high unemployment. They are only recently working their way out of economic recession.
And the recent global financial crisis just delayed that return to productivity.
Germany is the current powerhouse in Europe and they get to call many of the shots
when it comes to economic laws in the Euro Zone.
The average German knows more about American politics than the average American.
Moreover, they know about the politics in other countries in Europe. (The exception
is Italy. Italians change governments so often, no one bothers to keep up - not
even the Italians.) The German political system has at least five major political
parties. Most Americans have trouble keeping up with two.
They also cherish a good time. After work, you might find some Germany workers
gathered in the local drinking establishment enjoying one another’s company. Song
is to be broken into whenever you feel like it. Chances are others will join you
in the song. They like gatherings of any kind. There are clubs for all types of
activities like sports, singing, shooting, and "Kegeln" (a kind
of bowling). "Stadtfests" (community festivals), for example, are always
well attended. Another example of how some Germans cherish a good time is "Frühschoppen."
Translated it means an early drink. A "shoppen" is an old-fashioned term
for a "glas" (pint?) and Früh means early so it is like an "early
pint." In some families, Frühschoppen is a Sunday tradition and the
men gather at their favorite Kneipe (pub) after church for a convivial
beer with their friends. Said another way, Sunday is for Frühschoppen but
church comes first. If I had my way, I would substitute Frühschoppen for
church and I am sure many do.
Speaking of church, Germans are mostly Christian but other religions are also
evident. Looking at the Christians, they divide themselves about evenly between
Catholic and Protestant. Remember, Germany is the homeland of Martin Luther. There
are more Protestants in the north and more Catholics in the south but one cannot
be categorical in this age of free movement of people. The German government is
secular - although religious holidays are observed.
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Quotes in this section, as
well as many of the ideas, in this section can be attributed to
This section is not meant to be a full analysis of the culture, just an attempt
to identify some of the facets that may appear different to a first-time visitor.
Culturally, Germans are direct and succinct in their speech. They will often
follow a statement with a single word, “oder?” Which simply means “or?”
An example, if you meet a stranger in a bar, after you say, Guten Tag,
he or she might say, "Sie sind amerikanisch, oder?” They mean no disrespect,
it is just how everyone in Germany communicates. It saves time.
Germans want to correct speech they think is incorrect. This urge is cultural,
they cannot help themselves. They may correct not just your pronunciation of their
language but also any fact they think they believe is wrong. Their urge to correct
also applies to behavior. In a train or a bus, if a boy has his feet on the seat
opposite, it is quite normal for a fellow passenger to lean over and ask him to
put them on the floor. Girls, of course, would never think of doing doing such a
thing in the first place – they are perfect, don’tchaknow. But this willingness
to correct other’s behavior is extended to other adults as well. I have seen adults
speak sternly to someone riding a bicycle the wrong way on a one-way street. Do
not ask me how I know this. In short, Germans have no qualms about correcting misbehavior
when they see it.
“Germany is a country famed for technology: its high-spec BMWs, Audis, and Porsches,
or its efficient transport system. But many foreigners will soon realize that this
is in many ways a bit of a myth.” They are not so technically superior that you
can pay for small purchases by swiping a phone or a credit card. They prefer cash.
Service in retail stores is not what Americans or Brits are used to. If you want
help, you either must go to a cashier, or make eye contact with an employee and
ask them for help. Seldom, but not unheard of, will you be approached and asked
if you need help.
“The ‘customer is always right’ rule just doesn’t really apply here. You can't
be in a rush in many German restaurants, as the waiter will often pay you zero attention
- and expect them to argue back if they get your order wrong.” I have witnessed
this more than once. Oddly to my American culture, the customer didn’t take offense
but accepted what was served and probably paid with a tip, (trinkgeld).
Do not be surprised if you encounter people smoking indoors in Germany. Unlike
America or the UK, German smoking laws are state based not national based. The smoking
ban is much more relaxed than in most other western countries. Each of its 16 states
have different rules about puffing in public. Apart from in Bavaria, North Rhine-Westphalia,
and Saarland, it is still possible to smoke in some restaurants depending on the
state regulations. In train stations or in Airports, one will often see designated
smoking areas, but no one will correct someone for wandering outside the area with
a lit cigarette. If you find yourself in a crowd, smoking laws go out of the window.
The rule will be, if you got them, light them up. Of course, this does not apply
to theaters, churches, of similar gatherings.
As to political correctness in everyday conversation you can forget it. They
refer to a person of Turkish origin as a Turk, not a German, regardless of the number
of generations they have been in Germany or their German citizenship. Americans
are Amies. And people from Africa with dark skin are referred to with a word that
starts with the letter N. In English it is a pejorative. Again, they do not mean
to be disrespectful, just descriptive. Nevertheless, it makes me shudder when I
Holidays and Vacations:
I once heard humorist Dave Barry (Miami Herald) comment that Europeans frequently
get 53 weeks a year of vacation. I can tell you he is wrong; a year only has 52
School summer vacation is another consideration. Many families plan vacation
trips around the school breaks. German schools let out for only about 6 weeks during
the summer. They also take a two-week break around Christmas and New Year's and
a second two-week break around Easter. In the fall, they frequently take a one-week
break that many classes use to take class trips. Most states (Bundesländer)
coordinate their shorter breaks with other states so the whole country is not on
the road, trying to find lodging at the same time. So, from state to state, the
timing of the breaks will vary widely.
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